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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Papers must be written in English and should not exceed 15 pages in length. They should be submitted in Microsoft Word format, using Arial font.
Although not limited to them, papers submitted for publication in the Economy, Business and Development: An International Journal should include the following components: abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results and findings, conclusion and a list of references.
Papers should be arranged within the following guidelines:


Paper size: A4
Margins: 3.0 cm on top and bottom, and 2.5 cm on left and right sides
Indentation: Left: 0, Right: 0, Special: 0
Alignment: Justified

Font size: 12 pt.

Author details

Author’s full name (bold), title, affiliation and e-mail address.


Up to 250 words, describing the research objectives and conclusions (italic, 10 pt)
Up to five keywords (italic, 10 pt)
Up to 6 JEL classification codes (italic, 10 pt)

The available JEL codes may be accessed at: http://www.aeaweb.org/econlit/jelCodes.php


Headings must be clearly defined
Two empty lines before headings and one empty line after
Headings: bold, Sentence case, 12 pt, aligned left
Subheadings: italic, Sentence case, 11 pt, aligned left.

Paragraphs in the main text

Font size: 10 pt;
Style: normal;
Spacing: Before: 0, After: 0;
Line spacing: single;
One line space between paragraphs.


Tables must be made in Word or Word compatible format (tables should be transferred into Word format), font size: 9 pt.
Tables, graphs etc. should be placed in the text at the appropriate paragraph.They should not be wider than the margins of the paper
Each figure, graph or picture should also be sent in a separate file.
Tables, graphs etc. should be appropriately named and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals e.g.: Table 1. Title of table; Title: above the table, graph etc.; Font 11 pt, centered;
Source: under the table, graph etc.; Font 9 pt.


Figures, graphs and pictures should be high-quality grayscale graphics


Formulas should be created using Microsoft Equation Editor.

In-text references

Any in-text reference should include the author’s surname and the year of the work. For works with more than three authors use First author’s surname et al.

Reference list

Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph, references to sources may be cited in the following manners:

Author (year) or (Author, year)
When a direct quote is used: “Quotation” (Author, year, page number)


EBD uses Harvard referencing style. References should be arranged in alphabetic order of authors’ surname and chronologically for multiple works by the same author. References should not be numbered or bulleted. Please follow the following guidelines for referencing:

For books

Surname, initials (year), title of book, publisher, place of publication.

e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

For book chapters

Surname, initials (year), "chapter title", editor's surname, initials (Ed.), title of book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), "The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum", Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp.15-20.

For journals

Surname, initials (year), "title of article", journal name, volume issue, page numbers.

e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), "Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.72-80.

For published 
conference proceedings

Surname, initials (year of publication), "title of paper", in editor’s surname, initials (Ed.), title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Wilde, S. and Cox, C. (2008), “Principal factors contributing to the competitiveness of tourism destinations at varying stages of development”, in Richardson, S., Fredline, L., Patiar A., & Ternel, M. (Ed.s), CAUTHE 2008: Where the 'bloody hell' are we?, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, pp.115-118.

For unpublished 
conference proceedings

Surname, initials (year), "title of paper", paper presented at [name of conference], [date of conference], [place of conference], available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/file/aumueller05wiksar.pdf (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers

Surname, initials (year), "title of article", working paper [number if available], institution or organization, place of organization, date.

e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), "How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments", working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For encyclopaedia entries 
(with no author or editor)

Title of encyclopaedia (year), "title of entry", volume, edition, title of encyclopaedia, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926), "Psychology of culture contact", Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp.765-771.

(for authored entries, please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For newspaper 
articles (authored)

Surname, initials (year), "article title", newspaper, date, page numbers.

e.g. Smith, A. (2008), "Money for old rope", Daily News, 21 January, pp.1, 3-4.

For newspaper 
articles (non-authored)

Newspaper (year), "article title", date, page numbers.

e.g. Daily News (2008), "Small change", 2 February, p.7.

For archival or other unpublished sources

Surname, initials (year), "title of document", unpublished manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

e.g. Litman, S. (1902), "Mechanism & Technique of Commerce", unpublished manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

For electronic sources

If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as the date that the resource was accessed.

Surname, initials (year), “title of electronic source”, available at: persistent URL (accessed date month year).

e.g. Weida, S. and Stolley, K. (2013), “Developing strong thesis statements”, available at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/1/ (accessed 20 June 2018)

Standalone URLs, i.e. those without an author or date, should be included either inside parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

For data

Surname, initials (year), title of dataset, name of data repository, available at: persistent URL, (accessed date month year).

e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (2015), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v4, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07218.v4 (accessed 20 June 2018)

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