Main Article Content

Biljana Drvoshanova
Katerina Bandzo Oreshkovikj
Hristina Poposka


This study investigates the potential of integrating sustainable agricultural practices to mitigate climate change impacts on the cultivation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the arid regions. Climate-induced challenges such as desertification have further aggravated the issue of pepper cultivation. The experiment was executed in Kochani region in 2021, employing a randomized block design with five different fertilizer treatments including a notable biofertilizer, Trichoderma harzianum. The agronomic parameters such as fruit length, diameter, mass, pericarp thickness, and yield have been analysed. The mixed fertilization treatment (MIX) illustrated a significant enhancement in fruit dimensions and yield, whereas the Trichoderma treatment (TRICH) exhibited a notable reduction in non-marketable fruits. The findings validate that the incorporation of Trichoderma with organic and mineral fertilizers not only bolsters plant growth and yield, but also strengthens climate resilience in pepper cultivation. This increases the understanding of biofertilizer utilization in sustainable agriculture, especially in regions struggling with climate adversities. Furthermore, the study underpins the necessity for advanced knowledge in leveraging live organisms like Trichoderma for increasing agricultural productivity and climate resilience in arid regions.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Apostol, F. D., Dinu, M., Dumitru, M. G., Maracineanu, L. C., Josceanu, A. M., & Giugea, N. (2022). Influence of Fertilization With Trichoderma Atroviride and Fulvic Acids Upon the Nutritive Constituents in Long Pepper Fruits. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series B: Chemistry and Materials Science, 84(4), 83–98.
Bayoumi, Y., Shalaby, T., Abdalla, Z., Shedeed, S., Abdelbaset, N., El-Ramady, H., & Prokisch, J. (2022). Grafting of Vegetable Crops in the Era of Nanotechnology: A photographic Mini Review. Environment, Biodiversity and Soil Security, 6(2022), 133–148.
Blinkov, I., Kostadinov, S., & Marinov, I. T. (2013). Comparison of erosion and erosion control works in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 1(3), 15–28.
Drvoshanova, B., Ivanovska, S., Jankulovska, M., Popsimonova, G., & Ibushoska, A. (2021). Evaluation of fruit traits in pepper (type kapiya) collection from North Macedonia. Acta Horticulturae, 1320, 25–32.
Gunawardena, M. D. M., & De Silva, C. S. (2015). Identifying the Impact of Temperature and Water Stress on Growth and Yield Parameters of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). OUSL Journal, 7(0), 25.
Guzmán-Guzmán, P., Kumar, A., de los Santos-Villalobos, S., Parra-Cota, F. I., Orozco-Mosqueda, M. del C., Fadiji, A. E., Hyder, S., Babalola, O. O., & Santoyo, G. (2023). Trichoderma Species: Our Best Fungal Allies in the Biocontrol of Plant Diseases—A Review. Plants, 12(3), 1–35.
Liu, Q., Meng, X., Li, T., Raza, W., Liu, D., & Shen, Q. (2020). The growth promotion of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by Trichoderma guizhouense NJAU4742-based biological organic fertilizer: Possible role of increasing nutrient availabilities. Microorganisms, 8(9), 1–23.
Mahajan, G., Rattan, P., & Sharma, A. (2023). Effect of microbial inoculants on growth , yield and quality attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The Pharma Innovation Journal, Volume 11, September. 1503-1511, https://www.thepharmajournal.comvarieties
Manokaran, R., Sharma, P., Sharma, M., Raja, M., & Shanmugam, V. (2014). Status of Trichoderma research in India: A review Want more pepers like this? Status of Trichoderma research in India: A review. Downloaded from Academia.Edu  Indian Phytopath, 67(1), 1–19.
Maow, B. A. (2023). Effects of Irrigation Water Salinity Levels on Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum ) Yield and Quality Properties and Soil Characteristics. Research square 1–19.
Mukaetov, D., Andonov, S., Chukaliev, O., Dimov, Z., Martinovska Stojcheska, A., Tanaskovik, V., Nikolov, N., Mincev, I., Poposka, H., & Dimitrov, L. (2021). Report on climate change in agricultural sector, vulnerability and adaptation. Prepared for Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of North Macedonia (MOEPP).
Nguyen, G. N., & Lantzke, N. (2022). Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Semi-Arid Climate on Capsicum Cultivation by Using the Retractable Roof Production System. Plants, 11(20).
Niu, M., Wei, L., Peng, Y., Huang, Y., & Bie, Z. (2022). Mechanisms of increasing salt resistance of vegetables by grafting. Vegetable Research, 2(1), 1–9.
Petros Kubheka, B., & Weldegabir Ziena, L. (2022). Trichoderma : A Biofertilizer and a Bio-Fungicide for Sustainable Crop Production. In Trichoderma - Technology and Uses. IntechOpen.
Popsimonova, G., Benko, B., Karic, L., & Gruda, N. (2021). Production systems in southeastern European greenhouses. Acta Horticulturae, 1326, 137–143.
Sandeva Atanasova, N., Jankulovska, M., & Ivanovska, S. (2021). Genetic diversity of Macedonian embroidered pepper (Capsicum spp.) based on fruit morphological traits. Acta Horticulturae, 1320, 33–40.
Saqib, M., & Anjum, M. A. (2021). Mitigation of climate change effect in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) through adjustment of planting time. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(3), 919–927.
State Statistical Office of North Macedonia, (last approached on April, 2023), available at
Tangga, C. K., Mohidin, H., & Abdullah, S. (2022). The Effect of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Compost and Trichoderma Biofertilizer on Growth and Yield Performance of Chili ( Capsicum annuum L. Var. Kulai). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1114(1).
Yang, L., Xia, L., Zeng, Y., Han, Q., & Zhang, S. (2022). Grafting enhances plants drought resistance: Current understanding, mechanisms, and future perspectives. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13(October), 1–17.
XL STAT Version 2014.5.03 Copyright Addinsoft 1995-2014