ZVUKOVI ŠUTNJE U DOKTORU ŽIVAGU BORISA PASTERNAKA
Influence of classical music, and composers like Scriabin and Wagner, is clearly visible in the syntax and phonology of Pasternak’s poetical language. The relationship between musicality – rhythm, melody, sound, but also silence – is one of the focal points of literary language in his famous novel Doctor Zhivago, one of the greatest novels about the fall of Imperial Russia, and the end of the monarchy in bloody war and revolution ever written. This presentation aims to investigate some aspects of the relationship between art, violence, and revolution, i.e. between imaginary world of revolutionary (Soviet) Russia in Doctor Zhivago and the ways in which the novel represents these events through sounds of a crowd and city in turmoil, but even more importantly – through intense moments of silence. While the representation of Russian revolution as an event of intense sounds, even noisiness (as A. Blok writes in his essay Intelligentsia and Revolution, artist's duty was to create new literary forms and new language by grasping an extraordinary music of the Revolution), and therefore through audible and visual images of dramaturgy of sounds and cacophony, Pasternak's revolution in Doctor Zhivago is often portrayed through moments of silence, or protagonists' whisperings among themselves. Departing from the thesis that sounds and silence are physical states, but also an aesthetic and cultural devices, the aim of this paper is to answer the following questions. What are the meanings of sounds, silence, and whispering as metaphors of violence, war, and revolution in Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago? Especially in relation to “paradoxical materiality” (Ch. Miller) of silence, where this state of complete muteness and stillness represents at the same time emptiness – but also plentitude, weightlessness – but also heaviness, and therefore, as Miller further elaborates, “can (...) be seen as a simultaneous weightlessness (a dissolution of corporeal limits) and kinetic plenitude,” the paper analyzes the symbolism of moments of silence in Pasternak’s novel. Is Pasternak’s profound “rhetoric of silence” (C. Glenn) signifier of an amputation of Doctor Zhivago’s protagonists from the world of violent revolutionary Russia into their own, private, intimate worlds of introspection, or it is rather a signifier of their powerful resistance against general misrepresentation of revolution as universal political and cultural project of emancipation and freedom? In other words, can Pasternak’s “rhetoric of silence” in Doctor Zhivago be understood as a state of plentitude and knowing (S. Sontag), i.e. as a method of radical speech of silenced and whispering protagonists rather than of their muteness as a consequence of their (bourgeois) laid-backness and passivity?
Birnbaum, Henrik. (1989). Further Reflections on the Poetics of Doctor Zhivago: Structure, Technique, and Symbolism. In Boris Pasternak and His Times. Fleishman, Lazar. (Ed.). Berkeley Slavic Specialties. 284-314.
Blok, Aleksandr A. (2007). Intelligencija i revoljucija [The intelligentsia and the revolution]. In Stihotvorenija i poemy [The poems]. Blok, Aleksandr A. Moskva: Èksmo. 508-518. (In Russian.)
Bykov, Dmitrij. (2010). Boris Pasternak. Moskva: Molodaja gvardija. (In Russian.)
Cage, John. (1969). Silence. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: The M.I.T. Press.
Flaker, Aleksandar. (1984). Ruska avangarda 1 [Russian avant-garde]. Zagreb: SNL, Globus.
Foucault, Michel. (1995). Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. Prev. Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books.
Gasparov, Boris. (1989). Vremennoj kontrapunkt kak formoobrazujuščij princip romana Pasternaka “Doktor Živago” [Temporary counterpoint as form-makeing principle of Pasternak’s novel “Doctor Živago”]. In Boris Pasternak and His Times. Fleishman, Lazar. (Ed.). Berkeley Slavic Specialties. 315-358.
Han, Anna. (2015). Tvorčestvo Borisa Pasternaka v kontekste èstetičeskoj i filosofskoj mysli XX veka [Boris Pasternak's creation in the contexts of the twentieth- century aesthetic and philosophical thoughts]. Szeged: Dissertation. 273-298.
Hassan, Ihab. (1970). Metaphors of Silence. In The Virginia Quarterly Review, vol. 46, no. 1. 81-95.
Hughes, Robert P. (1989). Nabokov Reading Pasternak. In Boris Pasternak and His Times. Fleishman, Lazar. (Ed.). Berkeley Slavic Specialties. 153-170.
Junggren, Anna. (
Kalamaras, George. (1994). Reclaiming the Tacit Dimension: Symbolic Form in the Rhetoric of Silence. New York: SUNY Press.
Koskinen, Maaret. (2010). Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence. Pictures in the Typewriter, Writings on the Screen. Seattle: University of Washington Press; Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Le Breton, David. (2017). Sensing the World. An Anthropology of the Senses. Transl. Carmen Ruschiensky. London et al.: Bloomsbury.
Lotman, Jurij M. (2001). Struktura umjetničkog teksta. Transl. Sanja Veršić. Zagreb: ALFA.
Metzer, David. (2006). Modern Silence. In The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 23, No. 3. 331-374.
Miller, Chris P . (2007). Silence. URL: https://lucian.uchicago.edu/blogs/mediatheory/keywords/silence/ (accessed April 12, 2019).
Mirić, Milan. (2006). Pogovor. Drama jednog romana [Talk. The drama of a novel]. In Pasternak, Boris. Doktor Živago. Transl. Milan Mirić, Fikret Cacan. Zagreb: Školska knjiga. 591-609.
Morton, Ella. (2014). How Long Could You Endure the World’s Quitest Place? http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/05/05/orfield_laboratories_in_minn eapolis_is_the_world_s_quietest_place.html?via=gdpr-consent (accessed April 12, 2019).
Pasternak, Boris. (1945-1955). Doktor Živago. FTM.
Pasternak, Boris. (1961). Ohrannaja gramota [The letter of protection]. In Sočinenija, II. Pasternak, Boris. Michigan: Ann Arbor.
Pasternak, Boris. (2006). Doktor Živago. Prev. Milan Mirić, Fikret Cacan. Zagreb: Školska knjiga.
Picard, Max. (1948). The World of Silence – Die Welt des Schweigens. https://herbertbaioco.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/the-world-of-silence-max- picard.pdf (accessed April 12, 2019.).
Sontag, Sontag. (1967). The Aesthetics of Silence. “Aspen”, no. 5 + 6, item 3. http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6/threeEssays.html#sontag (accessed April 12, 2019.).
Smirnov, Igor. (1996). Roman tajn Doktor Živago [Novel of secrets "Doctor Zhivago"]. Moskva: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. (In Russian.)
Spivak, Gayatri C. (1994). Can the Subaltern Speak? In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory. Williams, Patrick, Chrisman, Laura (Eds.). New York: Columbia University Press. 66-111.
Steiner, George. (1986). Language and Silence. Essays on Language, Literature and the Inhuman. New York: Athneum. https://archive.org/stream/SteinerGeorge_201504/Steiner%2C%20George%20- %20Language%20and%20Silence%20%28Atheneum%2C%201986%29_djvu.txt (accessed April 12, 2019.).
Užarević, Josip. (2006). Ženskoe načalo v lirike Borisa Pasternaka [The feminine principle of Boris Pasternak's lyrics]. In Eternity’s Hostage. Selected Papers from the Stanford International Conference on Boris Pasternak, May, 2004. Part 1. Fleishman, Lazar. (Ed.). Stanford: Stanford Slavic Studies. 174-192.
Zubok, Vladislav. (2009). Zhivago’s Children. The Last Russian Intelligentsia. Harvard University Press.
Philological studies © 2019. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License