Main Article Content
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economies of many countries and irrigation make it a crucial actor to increase crop production. In the world, 70% of available water resources are used for agricultural irrigation. However, it is almost 90% in some countries in the world. The main and common problems and challenges in agricultural irrigation are observed as excessive water use by farmers in some areas with surface irrigation, insufficient land leveling, no use of appropriate furrow and border length according to water flow and soil texture, irrigation water application without volumetric measurement of water, low irrigation water use efficiency and water productivity, drainage and salinity issues, alkalinization, impact of climate change (drought), the low effectiveness of the water user associations, improper crop pattern (monoculture), insufficient design and management of pressurized irrigation systems, inadequate irrigation pricing policies, weak cooperation among the instittutions and political instability in some countries. Irrigation efficiency (IE) (35-40%) and irrigation water productivity (WP) are very low and use of gross irrigation water is more than 10,000 m3 ha-1 in some Middle East countries. IE (%) WP (kg m-3 and $ m-3) are the most important indicators for evaluation criteria of irrigation schemes and farms, irrigation authorities and decision makers. Thus, the importance of IE and WP for sustainable use of soil and water resources, some actual and experimental data regarding those issues, problems and recommendations considering technical and institutional approaches are discussed.
Cetin, O., Kara, A. 2019. Assesment of water productivity using different drip irrigation systems for cotton. Agricultural Water Management, 223, 105693. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105693
Çetin, Ö., Üzen, N., Kurt, S.A., 2013. Expected econoımic effects of irrigation in GAP Region of Turkey and irrigation management comparing to the practices in Spain. 3rd National Congress of Soil and Water Resources. 22-24 October, 2013, Tokat. 416-420 (with an English abstract in Turkish).
FAO. 2008. AQUASTAT Country profile – Jordan. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
FAO; UN Water, 2021. Progress on level of water stress: Global Status and acceleration needs for SDG indicator 6.4.2. Rome, Italy. (also available at http://www.fao.org/3/cb6241en/cb6241en.pdf).
HungerMap (2022). HungerMap LIVE : Global insights and key trends." https://static.hungermapdata.org/insight-reports/latest/global-summary.pdf (17.07.2022)
Nangia, V., Yadava, N.D., 2016. Editorial: Improving water productivity in dry Areas. Annals of Arid Zone 55(3-4): 63-66.
Nazari, B., Liaghat, A., Akbaric, R.M., Keshavarz, M., 2018. Irrigation water management in Iran: Implications for water use efficiency improvement. Agricultural Water Management 208: 7–18.
OECD, 2021. Water use and irrigation in agriculture. In: Trends and Drivers of Agri-environmental Performance in OECD Countries. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/f5083506-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/f5083506-en#abstract-d1e14561 (Access date: 16.06.2021).
Orta, A.H., 2022. Drought, Irrigation and Food Security. Proccedings of International Congress and Workshop on Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 12-15 May, 2022, Diyarbakır, Turkiye. p. 374
Ortaş, İ., 2022. Impact of Climate Change on Türkiye and West Asia’s Food and Water Security. Proccedings of International Congress and Workshop on Agricultural Structures and Irrigation, 12-15 May, 2022, Diyarbakır, Turkiye. 216-228
Paredes P, Rodrigues GC, Alves I, Pereira LS (2014). Partitioning evapotranspiration, yield prediction and economic returns of maize undervarious irrigation management strategies. Agricultural Water Management 135:27–39. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2013.12.010
Pereira, L.S., Cordery, I., Iacovides, J., 2012. Improved indicators of water use performance and productivity for sustainable water conservation and saving. Agricultural Water Management 108: 39– 51. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2011.08.022
Qadir, M., Bahri, A., Toshio Sato, T., Al-Karadsheh, E., 2010. Wastewater production, treatment, and irrigation in Middle East and North Africa. Irrig Drainage Syst. 24:37–51. DOI 10.1007/s10795-009-9081-y
Seckler, D., Molden, D., Sakthivadivel, R., 2003. The concept of efficiency in water resources management and policy. In: Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement (Eds J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden). International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
SUEN, 2022. Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency And Productivity In The Middle East: Pressures, Status, Impacts And Responses. Istanbul, Turkiye. ISBN: 978-625-8451-33-7, p. 94
Uygan, D., Cetin, Ö., Alveroğlu, V., Sofuoğlu, A., 2021. Improving of water saving and economic productivity based on quotation with sugar content of sugar beet using linear move sprinkler irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 255: 106989, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.106989