Main Article Content

Sanja Stojoska
Marina Nacka


The aim of this study is to compare differences that occur in SMEs E-marketing and E-business approach in the digital era since the advent of Covid-19. The events associated with the pandemic have forced more consumers to meet their needs online, and many businesses to adjust to this new reality. SMEs became most vulnerable, considering their dependency on the velocity of money from merchandise sales. The decreased demand disturbed companies’ cash flow. The same applies for agribusiness SMEs in North Macedonia. This paper is based on a case study for Agro Junikom, a medium-sized, agribusiness enterprise in North Macedonia. It shows the results of analytical and comparative analysis of the changes of company’s perception and approach regarding the digital space since the onset of the pandemic. The first interview was conducted in 2018, and the second one in 2022, after the Covid-19 forced digitalisation. The results are graphically displayed using a Business Model Canvas, and present the transition of a business model, from traditional to digital marketing approach. Results show that by increasing the online presence, with already existing technological infrastructure and staff readiness, the enterprise introduces an additional sales channel and targets an additional customer segment. By doing so, additional value is created. The positive response to this change is evident in terms of cost and income structure, where the cost structure remains unchanged, while an additional source of income is introduced. Therefore, the addition of e-marketing tools to the already established marketing strategy, was a necessary movement to maintain, and even improve enterprise’s performance and market presence, in an unexpected, critical occurrence had a significant influence on business operations.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Athanasopoulou, A.; de Reuver, M.; Nikou, S.; Bouwman, H. (2019). What technology enabled services impact business models in the automotive industry? An exploratory study. Futures, 109, 73–83.
Baker, S.R., Farrokhnia, R.A., Meyer, S., Pagel, M., & Yannelis, C. (2020), How does household spending respond to an epidemic? Consumption during the 2020covid-19 pandemic. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Barann, B., Hermann, A., Cordes, A.K., Chasin, F., Becker, J. (2019). Supporting digital transformation in small and medium-sized enterprises: a procedure model involving publicly funded support units. In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 4977–4986.
Bocken, N.; Boons, F.; Baldassarre, B. (2019). Sustainable business model experimentation by understanding ecologies of business models. J. Clean. Prod., 208, 1498–1512.
Cardeal G, Höse K, Ribeiro I, Götze U. (2020). Sustainable Business Models–Canvas for Sustainability, Evaluation Method, and Their Application to Additive Manufacturing in Aircraft Maintenance. Sustainability. 12(21):9130.
Chaffey, D., Ellis-Chadwick, F., Mayer, R., & Johnston, K. (2009). Internet marketing: strategy, implementation and practice: Pearson Education.
Chesbrough, H., (2010). Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers. Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3): 354 – 363.
Chong, A. Y.-L., Chan, F. T. S., & Ooi, K.-B. (2012). Predicting consumer decisions to adopt mobile commerce: Cross country empirical examination between China and Malaysia. Decision Support Systems, 53(1), 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2011.12.001.
Dash, G.; Chakraborty, D. (2021) Transition to E-Learning: By Choice or By Force—A Cross—Cultural and Trans-National Assessment. Prabandhan Ind. J. Manag. 14, 8–23. doi:
Davis, C. H., & Vladica, F. (2006). Use of internet technologies and e-business solutions: a structural model of sources of business value among Canadian micro-enterprises. Proceedings of the 39th Annual HICSS Conference.
Day, G.S. (2011). Closing the Marketing Capabilities Gap. J. Mark. 75, 183–195. doi:
Dehkordi G. J., et al. (2012). A Conceptual Study on E-marketing and Its Operation on Firm's Promotion and Understanding Customer’s Response: International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 7, No. 19; 2012 doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n19p114.
El-Gohary, H. (2010). E-Marketing-A literature Review from a Small Businesses perspective. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1(1), 214-244.
El-Gohary, H. (2012). Factors affecting E-Marketing adoption and implementation in tourism firms: An empirical investigation of Egyptian small tourism organisations. Tourism Management, 33(5), 1256- 1269.
Ericsson Consumer Lab. (2012). “10 Hot Consumer Trends 2013”, Ericsson Consumer Lab Report, Stockholm. Available online:
Muller, P., Devnani, S., Ladher, R., et al. (2021). Annual report on European SMEs 2020/2021: digitalisation of SMEs: background document. European Commission, Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Publications Office.
Ford, S.; Despeisse, M. (2018). Additive manufacturing and sustainability: An exploratory study of the advantages and challenges. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 137, 1573–1587.
Forrester Research. The Growth of Social Technology Adoption; Forrester Research: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2008.
Geissdoerfer, M., Vladimirova, D., Evans, S. (2018). Sustainable business model innovation: A review. J. Clean. Prod, 198, 401–416.
Joyce, A.; Paquin, R.L. (2016). The triple layered business model canvas: A tool to design more sustainable business models. J. Clean. Prod, 135, 1474–1486.
Johnson, M. W., Christensen, C. C., & Kagermann, H. (2008). Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review, 86(12): 50-59.
Jones, P., Clarke-Hill, C.,Comfort, D.,Hillier, D. (2008). Marketing and sustainability. Market. Intell. Plann. 2008, 26, 123–130. doi:
Lee, R. P., & Grewal, R. (2004). Strategic responses to new technologies and their impact on firm performance. Journal of Marketing, 68, 157–171. doi:
Leeflang, P.S., Verhoef, P.C., Dahlström, P., Freundt, T. (2014). Challenges and solutions for marketing in a digital era. Eur. Manag. J. 2014, 32, 1–12. doi:
Leonidou, C.N.; Leonidou, L.C. (2011). Research into environmental marketing/management: A bibliographic analysis. Eur. J. Mark., 45, 68–103. doi:
Liang, Ting-Peng & Huang, Jin-Shiang. (1998). An Empirical Study on Consumer Acceptance of Products in Electronic Markets: A Transaction Cost Model. Decision Support Systems. 24. 29-43. 10.1016/S0167-9236(98)00061-X.
Linder, J., Cantrell, S. (2000). Carved in water: Changing business models fluidly. Accenture institute for strategic change.
Lüdeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: State-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. J. Clean. Prod., 45, 9–19.
Kaplan, A.M.; Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Bus. Horiz., 53, 59–68. doi:
Keane, S.F.; Cormican, K.T.; Sheahan, J.N. (2018). Comparing how entrepreneurs and managers represent the elements of the business model canvas. J. Bus. Ventur. Insights 2018, 9, 65–74.
Khwaja, M.; Mahmood, S.; Zaman, U. (2020). Examining the Effects of eWOM, Trust Inclination, and Information Adoption on Purchase Intentions in an Accelerated Digital Marketing Context. Informatics, 11, 478. doi:
Kumar, S.; Dhir, A.; Talwar, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Kaur, P. (2021). What drives brand love for natural products? The moderating role of household size. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2021, 58, 102329. doi:
Martinovska Stojchevka, A., Nacka, M., Tuna, E. (2021). Disrupted Market Relations in Agriculture in North Macedonia: the COVID-19 Crisis. DOI:
Matosas-López, L. (2021). The Management of Digital Marketing Strategies in Social Network Services: A Comparison between American and European Organizations. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., 7, 65. doi:
McDonagh, P., Prothero, A. (2014). Sustainability marketing research: Past, present and future. Journal of Marketing Management, 30, 1186–1219. doi:
McGrath, RG. (2010). Business models: A discovery driven approach. Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3): 247–261.
Morkunas, V.J.; Paschen, J.; Boon, E. (2019). How blockchain technologies impact your business model. Bus. Horiz., 62, 295–306
Morgan, A., Colebourne, D., & Thomas, B. (2006). The development of ICT advisors for SME businesses: An innovative approach. Technovation, 26(8), 980–987. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2005.09.001.
Muntinga, D.G.; Moorman, M.; Smit, E.G. (2011). Introducing COBRAs: Exploring motivations for brand-related social media use. Int. J. Adv., 30, 13–46. doi:
Niaki, M.K.; Torabi, S.A.; Nonino, F. (2019). Why manufacturers adopt additive manufacturing technologies: The role of sustainability. J. Clean. Prod, 222, 381–392.
Nielsen. The Nielsen Global Survey of Social Media Usage. (2012). Available online:
Oh, J., Fiorito, S. Cho, S., Hofacker, H.C.F. (2008). Effects of design factors on store image and expectation of merchandise quality in web-based stores, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 15 (4), pp. 237–249.
Onetti, A., Zucchella, A., Jones, M., McDougall-Covin, P. (2012). Internationalization, innovation and entrepreneurship: business models for new technology-based firms. Journal of Management and Governance, 16 (3): 337-368.
Osterwalder, A.; Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers; JohnWiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, ISBN 9780470876411.
Pires, G.D., Aisbett, J. (2001). A dual Marketing and Informational Perspective to E- Commerce Adoption. The Newcastle University Research Publications.
Porter, Michael. (2001). Strategy and the Internet. Harvard business review. 79. 62-78, 164
Rehme, M., Lindner, R., Götze, U. (2015). Perspektiven für Geschäftsmodelle der Fahrstrombereitstellung. In Entscheidungen beim Übergang in die Elektromobilität; Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: Wiesbaden, Germany; pp. 409–428.
Riemenschneider, C. K., Harrison, D. a., & Mykytyn, P. P. (2003). Understanding it adoption decisions in small business: integrating current theories. Information & Management, 40(4), 269–285. doi:10.1016/S0378-7206(02)00010-1.
Schoormann, T., Behrens,D., Kolek, E., Knackstedt, R. (2016). Sustainability in businessmodels—Aliterature-review-based design-science-oriented research agenda. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul, Turkey, 12–15 June 2016
Shafer, M., Smitha, J., Linderb, J. (2005). The power of business models, Business Horizons (2005) 48, 199—207, available at:, doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2004.10.014
Schallmo, D.R.A. Geschäftsmodelle Erfolgreich Entwickeln und Implementieren, 1st ed.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2013; ISBN 978-3-642-37994-9.
Sosna, M., Trevinyo-Rodríguez, RN., Velamuri, SR. (2010). Business model innovation through trial-and error learning: The Naturhouse Case. Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3): 383-407.
Srinivasan, S., Anderson, R., and Ponnavolu, K. (2002). Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78(1):41–50, March. doi:10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00065-3.
Teece, D. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3): 172 – 194.
Urban, M.; Klemm, M.; Ploetner, K.O.; Hornung, M. (2018). Airline categorisation by applying the business model canvas and clustering algorithms. J. Air Transp. Manag, 71, 175–192.
Wirtz, B.W. (2013). Business Model Management Design Instrumente Erfolgsfaktoren von Geschäftsmodellen, 3rd ed.; Springer Gabler Verlag: Wiesbaden, Germany; ISBN 978-3834946355.
Yin, R.K. (2003): Case study research: Design and methods. Sage Publications, London.
Zhang, M., Jansen, B.J., & Chowdhury, A. (2017). Influence of business engagement in online word-of-mouth communication on twitter: A path analysis.Electronic markets: The International Journal on Networked Business, 21(3), 161-175.
Zott, C., Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: An activity system perspective. Long Range Planning, 43 (2-3): 216-226.
Zott, C., Amit, R., Massa, L. (2011). The business model: Recent developments and future research. Journal of Management, 37 (4): 1019-1042.
State Statistical Office of North Macedonia, (2020). Structural Business Statistics [online] available at:,