Main Article Content
In this study, five samples of honey (4 from various beekeepers and 1 from a local supermarket) were analyzed to determine the presence of Pb, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Ni and Se content using atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were collected from the following locations: 2 from Skopje, 2 from Kumanovo and 1 from Preshevo, Srbia. HPLC was applied to determine sugars in honey samples. Acid and moisture were also determined. The average values of concentration were from 0.033 to 0.055 mg/kg, 0.610to 2.498 mg/kg, 0.052 to 0.377 mg/kg, 2.133 to 3.474 mg/kg, 0.060 to 1.034 mg/kg, 0.005to 0.019 mg/kg, and 0.067 to 0.085 mg/kg for Pb, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Cr, and Zn, respectively. Cadmium was determined in one sample (0.040 mg/kg), while the presence of arsenic, nickel and selenium were not observed. The total amount of reductive sugars was within the standard value of min 60 g/100 g honey. The moisture was from 16.6 to 17.6% (max 20%). The acid content was recorded from 9 to 28mEq/1 kg honey (max 50mEq/1 kg honey). The results were compared with the safety standards established from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy. In general, the analyzed parameters are within the standards and honey can serve as good dietary source.
Batelková, P., Borkovcová, I., Čelechovská, O., Vorlová, L., Bartáková, K.( 2012). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk elements in honey from the South Moravian region (Czech Republic). Acta Veterinaria Brno, 81(2), 169-174.
Bibi S., Husain S.Z., Malik R.N. (2008). Pollen analysis and heay metals detection in honey samples from seven selected countries. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40(2), 507-516.
Buba F., Gidado A., Shugaba A.( 2013). Analysis of Biochemical Composition of Honey Samples from North-East Nigeria. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry, 2(3), 2-7.
Cano B.C., Felsner M.L., Bruns R.E., Matos J.R., Almeida-Muradian L.B.( 2006). Optimization of Mobile Phase for Separation of Carbohydrates in Honey by High Performance Liquid Chromatography using a Mixture Design. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society,17(3), 588-593.
Cavia M.M., Fernández-Muino, M.A., Alonso-Torre, S.R., Huidobro, J.F., Sancho, M.T. ( 2007). Evolution of acidity of honeys from continental climates: Influence of induced granulation. Food Chemistry, 100(4), 1728-1733.
Čelechovská O., Vorlová L., Groups of honey-physicochemical properties and heavy metals.( 2001). Acta Veterinaria Brno, 70(1), 91-95.
Devillers J., Doré J.C., Marenco M., Poirier-Douchêne, F., Galand N., Viel, C. (2002). Chemometrical analysis of 18 metallic and nonmetallic elements found in honeys sold in France, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(21), 5998-6007.
El Sohaimy A.S., Masry S.H.D., Shehata, M.G., Physicochemical characteristics of honey from different origins.( 2015). Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 60(2), 279-287.
Erbilir F., Erdoĝrul Ö., Determination of heavy metals in honey in Kahramanmaraş city, Turkey.( 2005). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,109(1-3), 181-187.
EU Council, Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. ( 2002). Official Journal of the European Communities, L10, 47-52.
Fakhimzadeh, K.F., Lodenius M., Heavy metals in Finnish honey, pollen and honey bees. (2000).Apiacta, 35(2), 85-95.
Fernández-Torres R., Pérez-Bernal J.L., Bello-López M.Á., Callejón-Mochón M., Jiménez-Sánchez, J.C., Guiraúm-Pérez, A. (2005). Mineral content and botanical origin of Spanish honeys. Talanta,65(3), 686-691.
Golob T., Doberšek U., Kump P., Nečemer M., Determination of trace and minor elements in Slovenian honey by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. (2005). Food Chemistry, 91(4), 593-600.
Hernandez O.M., Fraga G.M.J, Jimenez IA., Jimenez F., Arias J.J. ( 2005). Characterization of honey from the Canary Islands: determination. Food Chemistry, 93(3), 449-458.
Ioannidou M.D., Zachariadis G.A., Anthemidis A.N., Stratis. J.A. ( 2005). Direct determination of toxic trace metals in honey and sugars using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Talanta, 65(1), 92–97.
Khammas A-A.Z., Ghali A.A., Kadhima H.K. (2012). Combined cloud-point extraction and spectrophotometric detection of lead and cadmium in honey samples using a new ligand. International Journal f Chemical Sciences, 10(3), 1185-1204.
Kulek de Andrade C., Egéa dos Anjos V., Felsner L.M., Torres R.Y., Quináia P.S.( 2014). Direct determination of Cd, Pb and Cr in honey by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 146(0), 166-173.
Machado De-Meloa A.A., Bicudo de Almeida-Muradiana L., Sanchob T.M., Pascual-Matè, A. (2018). Composition and properties of Apis mellifera honey: A review. Journal of Apicultural Research, 57(1), 5-37.
Missio da Silva P., Gauche C., Gonzaga L.V., Costa A.C.O., Fett R. (2016). Chemical composition, stability, and authenticity. Food Chemistry, 196, 309-323.
Mohamed S.E., Mohamed S.O., Characterization of natural bee honey in different areas of the Sudan. Int. J. Adv. Res., 2015, 3(12), 1026-1030.
Pohl P., Stecka H., Sergiel I., Jamroz P. (2012). Different Aspects of the Elemental Analysis of Honey by Flame Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometry: A Review. Food Analytical Methods, 5(4), 737-751.
Prica N., Živkov-Baloš M., Jakšić S., Mihaljev Z., Kartalović B., Babić J., Savić J.( 2014). Moisiture and acidity as indicators of the quality of honey originating from Vojvodina region. Archives of veterinary medicine, 7(2), 99-109.
Salazar N.L., Benevides de Freitas B. A., Valério da Luz M., Bersch P., Fernando dos Santos Salazar R.( 2017). Physicochemical characterization of honey from different regions in Rio Grande do Sul State labeled with different inspection service stamp. Ciência e Natura, 39(3), 656-665.
Stankovska E., Stafilov T., Šajn R. (2008). Monitoring of trace elements in honey from the Republic of Macedonia by atomic absorption spectrometry, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,142, 117-126.
The Public Enterprise Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia – Skopje, 2011, 68, 64-67, https://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/0C67A96146866F4AB37A82AFE2148F75.pdf
Victorita B., Marghitas L.Al., Stanciu O., Laslo L., Dezmirean D., Bobis, O.( 2008). High-performance liquid chromatogrphic analysis of sugars in transylvanian honeydew honey. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 65(1-2), 229-232.
Vorlová L, Čelechovská O. Activity of enzymes and trace element content in bee honey, Acta Veterinaria Brno, 2002, 71(3), 375-378.