Main Article Content
In this paper, some bioactive antioxidants have been tested in several grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) present in R.N. Macedonia. Grapes are a source of various nutrients that are beneficial to the human body in many ways. A grape, as a raw material and its final processing - wine is a complex of many chemical substances and compounds that are responsible for many visible and sensory characteristics that are manifested in varieties (phenotypic). Those chemical compounds are; carbohydrates, organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, vitamins, polyphenols, minerals, nitrogen compounds, etc. Specifically, in our case, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and phenolic compounds (total phenols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ol and antioxidant activity) were tested in several autochthonous grape varieties and one standard variety (Belo zimsko, Stanushina, Crn valandovski drenok, Crven valandovski drenok and Palieri as standard). The tested chemicals are of great importance in their consumption in the human diet. They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-mutation effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular, degenerative and other chronic diseases. The most important for this group of compounds is that they determine the color, astringency, bitterness and some organoleptic and sensory characteristics of grapes and wine.
Artem V, Antoce AO, Namolosanu I, Ranca A, Petrescu A (2015). The influence of the vine cultivation technology on the phenolic composition of red grapes. Scientific Papers. Series B, Horticulture. Vol. LIX, 117-122.
Bertelli A, Migliori M, Bertelli A. E, Orglia N, Filippi C, Panaichi V, Falachi M, Giovannini L (2002). Effect of some withe wine phenols in preventing inflammatory cytokine release. Drugs under experimental and clinical research Journal 28. 11-15.
Biljana Korunoska (2007). "Ampelographic identification, study and collection of autochthonous varieties of vines in the Republic of Macedonia". Doctoral dissertation. Skopje.
B.W. Zoecklein and col. Wine Analysis and Production. Nury, 1st edition 1995. Aspen Publishers Inc.The Netherlands.
Chakraborthy, A., Ramani, P., Sherlin, H., Premkumar, P., Natesan, A. 2014. Antioxidant and prooxidant activity of Vitamin C in oral environment. Indian J. Dent. Res., 25(4): 499.
Coombe B.G. 1992. Research on development and ripening of the grape berry. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 43, 4: 101-110.
Flamini, R., Mattivi, F., De Rosso, M., Arapitsas, P., Bavaresco, L. Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: Anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19651–19669.
Hancock R.D, Viola R: Improving the nutritional value of crops through enhancement of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content: Rationale and biotechnological opportunities. J Agric Food Chem. 2005, 53: 5248-5257. 10.1021/jf0503863.
Ian Hornsey. 2007. The Chemistry and Biology of winemaking. Book. The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Ivanova V., Dimovska V. 2010. Determination of total flavan-3-ol in wines from Macedonia. Annual Proceedings, University Goce Delchev-Stip, Faculty of Agriculture, 45-57.
Ivanova V., Stefova M., Vojnoski B., Dörnyei Á., Márk L., Dimovska V., Identification of polyphenolic compounds in red and white grape varieties grown in R. Macedonia and changes of their content during ripening, 2012, Food Research International 44 (9), 2851-2860.
J. A. Kennedy, Grape and wine phenolics: Observationsand recent findings, Cien. Inv. Agr., 35 (2), 107–120 (2008).
Jiang Bao, Zhang Zwen, Zhang X. Z., (2011). Influence of terrain on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of Cabernet Sauvignon wines in loess plateau region of China. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan. 33(6), 900.
Juanjuan Liu, Yonglei Chen, Weifeng Wang, Jie Feng, Meijuan Liang, Sudai Ma, and Xingguo Chen. „Switch-On“ Fluorescent Sensing of Ascorbic Acid in Food Samples Based on Carbon Quantum Dots–MnO2 Probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2016, 64 (1) , 371-380.
Kostadinovic S., Wilkens A., Stefova M., Ivanova V., Vojnoski V., Mirhosseini H., Winterhalter P. (2012). Stilbene levels and antioxidant activity of Vranec and Merlot wines from Macedonia: Effect of variety and enological practices. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 135, 3003–3009.
Landete, J.M. Beneficial and harmful effects of wine consumption on health: Phenolic compounds, biogenic amines and ochratoxin A. In Nutrition and Diet Reserch Progress. Appetite and Weight Loss, 1st ed.; Tsisana, S., Ed.; Nova Science Pub Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 173–206.
López-Roca, E. Gómez-Plaza, The effects of enologicalpractices in anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and wine colour and their dependence on grape characteristics. J. Food Comp. Anal., 20 (7), 546–552 (2007).
M. S. García-Falcó, C. Pérez-Lamela, E. Martínez-Carballo, J. Simal-Gándara, Determination of phenolic compounds in wines: Influence of bottle storage of young wines on their evolution. Food Chem., 105 (1), 248–259 (2007).
Milanov G., Petkov M., Vojnoski B, Gelebeseva Krstić Venera. (2001) The influence of the selected yeast and enzymes on the quality of cabernet sauvignon and vranec wines, II Macedonian vine growing and wine making symposium with international participation, Skopje, 26-28. September.
Nikolay Stoyanov, Stefcho Kemilev, Hristo Spasov, Panko Mitev (2004). Influence of the vinification regime on the degree of extraction of phenolic compounds from the solid parts of grapes in the production of red wines, I-Oenological Conference with international participation - Oenology of the Future, Plovdiv 26-28 May.
Obreque-Slier, E., Pena-Neira, A., Lopes-Solis, R., Zamora-Marin, F., Ricardo-da Silva, J.M., Laureano, O. Comparative Study of the Phenolic Composition of Seeds and Skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) during Ripening. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 3591-3599.
Ratiu, I.A.; Al-Suod, H.; Ligor, M.; Monedeiro, F.; Buszewski, B. Effects of growth conditions and cultivability on the content of cyclitols in Medicago sativa. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 18, 33–48.
Rodríguez-Delgado, M.-A., G. González-Hernández, J.-E Conde-González, and J.-P. Pérez-Trujillo. 2002. Principal component analysis of the polyphenol content in young red wines.Food Chemistry 78: 523–32.
Ružić Nadežda, Jazić Lj., Adžić G. (1996). Effect of different way of production on quantity and stability of phenolic substances in wines cabernet sauvignon, cabernet franc and merlot, XI Counsiling wine growing and wine making Serbia, Ptishtina, 25-27. XI.
Slinkard K., Singleton V. L. 1977. Total Phenol Analysis: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods, Am J Enol Vitic, 28: 49-55.
Von Baer, D., Rentzsch, M., Hitschfeld, M.A., Mardones, C., Vergara, C., Winterhalter, P. Relevance of chromatographic efficiency in varietal authenticity verification of red wines based on their anthocyanin profiles: Interference of pyranoanthocyanins formed during wine ageing. Anal. Chim. Acta 2008, 621, 52–56.
Zoecklein B. W., Kenneth C. Fugelsang, Berry H. Gump & FredS. Nury (1995). Wine Analysis and Production, Macedonian language edition published by Ad Verbum, Macedonia, Copyright 2009